272 MY COUNTRY AND MY PEOPLE Chinese soul are hidden behind a somewhat unprepossessing exterior. Behind the Chinese flat, unemotional face is con- cealed a deep emotionalism, and behind his sullen, decorous appearance resides a carefree, vagabond soul. Those rough yellow fingers mould and fashion objects of pleasing design and harmony, and from the almond eyes behind the high cheek- bones shines a tender light that dwells fondly on forms of exquisite beauty. From the Temple of Heaven to the scholar's letter-paper and other products of artcraft, Chinese art shows a taste and finesse and understanding of tone and harmony that distinguish the best products of the human spirit. Calm and harmony distinguish Chinese art, and calm and harmony come from the soul of the Chinese artist* The Chinese artist is a man who is at peace with nature, who is free from the shackles of society and from the temptations of gold, and whose spirit is deeply immersed in mountains and rivers and other manifestations of nature. Above all, his breast must brood no ill passions, for a good artist, we strongly believe, must be a good man. He must first of all "chasten his heart" or "broaden his spirit,'* chie0y by travel and by contemplation. This is the severe training we impose on the Chinese painter. It would be only too easy to give testimonies from Chinese painters to illustrate this point. Thus Wen Chenming said: "If one's moral character is not high, his art will also lack style." A Chinese artist must absorb in himself the best of human culture and nature's spirit. Tung Ch'ich'ang (1555-1636), one of the greatest of China's calligraphists and painters, once said of another painter: "How can one be the father of painting with- out reading ten thousand books and travelling ten thousand fi?" The Chinese artist does not learn painting by going into a room and stripping a woman naked in order to study her anatomy, nor does he make copies of plaster figures of ancient Greece and Rome, as some backward art schools in the West still do. The Chinese artist travels and visits the famous mountains like Huaagshan in Anhui or the Omei mountains in Szechuen* This escape to the mountains is important for several reasons. First of all, the artist must absorb impressions from the myriad forms of nature, its insects and trees and clouds and waterfalls.